Codash http://codash.org/ Wed, 29 Jun 2022 18:16:42 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://codash.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon-150x150.png Codash http://codash.org/ 32 32 Powell says economic growth is likely to slow as pressures to de-globalize increase https://codash.org/powell-says-economic-growth-is-likely-to-slow-as-pressures-to-de-globalize-increase/ Wed, 29 Jun 2022 18:16:42 +0000 https://codash.org/powell-says-economic-growth-is-likely-to-slow-as-pressures-to-de-globalize-increase/

Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell said he thought it was “fairly likely” that forces of deglobalization would increase, leading to a more fractional new normal characterized by higher inflationary pressures, lower productivity and slower economic growth.

Powell made the comments June 29 during a panel discussion at the European Central Bank’s annual policy forum in Sintra, Portugal.

“We’ve been going through a period of disinflationary forces around the world — that’s globalization, aging demographics, low productivity, technology that makes it all possible,” Powell said, describing it as a world where inflation generally “wasn’t a problem” in the most advanced economies.

“Since the pandemic, we’ve lived in a world where the economy is being driven by very different forces, we know that,” he continued, noting that it remains unknown whether and when things will return to a previous disinflationary environment yes, to what extent.

“We suspect it’s going to be some kind of mix,” the Fed chair said.

“In between, we’ve had a series of supply shocks, we’ve had very high inflation globally, certainly in all advanced economies, and … we’re learning to deal with that,” he said, coming with his remarks as central banks around the world are generally of caught unawares by persistently high inflation and rushed to tighten loose monetary conditions to stem rising prices.

“Certainly a possible outcome”

Powell said the Fed’s task of achieving price stability and maximum employment in this new normal with new forces at work has been a “much different exercise” than the Federal Reserve has had over the past 25 years, while hinting that a slower economic growth would be an inevitable compromise in fighting inflation.

“For example, if we see a re-division of the world into competing geopolitical and economic camps in a reversal of globalization, that certainly sounds like lower productivity and lower growth,” he said.

“That’s certainly a possible outcome, and I think, to some degree, likely, a likely outcome,” Powell said.

Asked by the panel’s moderator if the US economy could withstand a “rush” of rate hikes, Powell replied that the US economy was in “pretty strong shape,” citing factors such as high household savings and a tight labor market.

He added that the goal of the Fed’s rate-hiking cycle is “moderate” economic growth, calling it a “necessary adjustment” aimed at reducing demand in the US economy and making it more closely matched to supply.

“Right now, supply and demand are really out of balance in many parts of the US economy, the job market is a good example of that,” he said, with the current unemployment rate at 3.6 percent and about two open positions for every job seeker .

“We need to balance them better to allow inflation to come down,” he added, implying that the Fed is willing to tolerate some labor market pain as the price for inflation to cool.

“No guarantee” for a soft landing

Powell said he sees “ways” for the Fed to achieve a so-called soft landing, where inflation falls but unemployment doesn’t rise significantly, although he added that “there’s no guarantee we’ll get there.” .

“We think we can do that,” Powell said, but “obviously it’s something that’s going to be quite a challenge.”

Powell’s comments follow recent comments from other Fed officials indicating that the central bank believes its current aggressive monetary tightening cycle is necessary to quell inflation and will result in a slowdown in economic growth – but that a recession is not inevitable is.

Cleveland Fed President Loretta Mester, a voting member of the rate-setting Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), said in a Wednesday interview on CNBC that the Fed is “only at the beginning” of its rate-hike effort and that it is carrying out the risk of a recession.

‘Bumpy Ride’

Notwithstanding the possibility of an economic contraction, Mester insisted the Fed must continue raising rates “briskly” and that to get inflation under control the central bank may need to side with tighter financial conditions.

“We are now on track to take our interest rates to more normal levels and then probably a bit higher into hawkish territory,” she told CNBC.

What Mester described as a “bumpy ride” toward tighter financial conditions would likely push the unemployment rate up to between 4 and 4.25 percent from the current 3.6 percent over the next two years, she predicted.

New York Fed President John Williams said in a separate interview on CNBC that he too sees a recession risk, although it’s not his “base case.”

Williams predicted the US economy would slow its pace of growth to 1 to 1.5 percent for the full year, calling it a “slow down that we need to see in the economy to really address the inflationary pressures that we have.” reduce and bring down inflation. ”

The Fed raised rates by 75 basis points at its last meeting, with fed fund futures contracts putting the probability of another 75 basis point hike at the next monetary policy meeting in July at 89.1 percent. This would increase the reference interest rate for overnight deposits from the current 1.50 percent to 1.75 percent to a target range of between 2.25 percent and 2.50 percent.

Mester said the Fed will likely need to keep interest rates at a final rate of between 3 and 3.5 percent.

Fed Dovish Pivot?

Nick Reece, VP of macro research and investment strategy at Merk Investments, told The Epoch Times in an emailed statement that market expectations for Fed rate hikes have shifted.

“The expected peak of the Fed’s rate hike cycle has shifted higher and earlier over the past month: from an expected peak in mid-2023 at around 3.25 percent to late 2022 at 3.75 percent,” he said.

However, Reece added that history shows that the Fed’s rate hike cycles typically don’t last as long or go as high as markets expect and that “indeed, the Fed’s dovish turn may already have begun.”

He pointed out that two-year government bond yields rose to 3.45 percent a few weeks ago and have since fallen to around 3 percent.

“The 2-year yield typically peaks at or before the peaks of the Fed’s rate hike cycle and above the peaks of the rate hike cycle,” he said, and his comments come as market watchers try to predict when the Fed will bounce back from tightening Averting policy and adjusting portfolio allocations to take advantage of the phase shift.

consequences

Tom Ozimek has a broad background in journalism, deposit insurance, marketing and communications, and adult education. The best writing advice he’s ever heard comes from Roy Peter Clark: “Hit your target” and “leave the best for last.”

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#LCAW2022: Biodiversity – a natural concern https://codash.org/lcaw2022-biodiversity-a-natural-concern/ Wed, 29 Jun 2022 09:00:10 +0000 https://codash.org/lcaw2022-biodiversity-a-natural-concern/

To celebrate London’s Climate Action Week, this article appears as part of IFA Magazine’s editorial campaign during the week, which aims to highlight key issues, news and views on climate change.

Written by Joe Yallop, Parmenion Investment Analyst

We depend entirely on the Earth’s ecosystems to provide the food, clean water, medicines and even oxygen we all need for a healthy society and economy. Without mangroves and coral reefs, coastal communities would have no natural protection from extreme weather conditions.

Yet when it comes to environmental issues, biodiversity is rarely mentioned – with the focus almost always being on climate change and global warming.

Biodiversity (“biodiversity”) refers to the diversity of life on earth, including all plant and animal species, the genetic diversity within and between those species, and the diversity of the ecosystems of which they are part. These ecosystems and their interactions are incredibly complex and have evolved over millions of years…

However, due to human activities, including unsustainable agriculture, deforestation, urbanization and pollution, many of the ecosystems are deteriorating, posing long-term risks to the sustainability of our economy. You can see the impact using the Planetary Boundaries framework developed by the Stockholm Resilience Centre(1).

This shows the safe operating limits for human activities. If we operate outside of these areas, we can cause long-term damage to the environment. As can be seen in the graphic below, we are already working out of bounds in several areas such as: B. Biosphere integrity, which relates to biodiversity loss, including the rate of species extinction each year.

The resources provided by these ecosystems are estimated at US$44 trillion, or more than half of global GDP(2). The sectors of the economy that are most dependent on nature are agriculture, food and construction – with a total value of around twice the German economy.

This is not insignificant and underscores the need for change to avoid irreversible damage to the natural capital that underpins our society and economy. As investors, considering environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria can enable us to invest in companies that manage these risks effectively and offer solutions that lead us to a more sustainable economy.

We can also align our investments with UN Sustainable Development Goals 14 and 15 “Life Below Water” and “Life On Land”, both of which are linked to biodiversity. Through active leadership and engagement, we can encourage companies to better manage their businesses and supply chains.

There are more and more government policies and initiatives to support this process. The next UN Biodiversity Conference, COP 15, will be held in Canada (originally China) later this year. Similar to the COP 26 meeting on climate change in 2021, this is an opportunity to spread internationally
Agreement on measures to protect biological diversity.

The EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 is another long-term plan to protect our ecosystems, and the Taskforce on Nature-related Financial Disclosures is starting to set metrics for companies to report on their impact on biodiversity. These efforts can help governments create a framework for society to have a positive impact on biodiversity.

As with climate change, the importance of biodiversity should not be underestimated. The natural world supports our economy and provides most of our daily goods and services. As individuals and investors, we can all do our part to ensure we protect the nature we depend on for generations to come
Come.

“The services of nature are indispensable to make human life possible and worth living. We need all the bounty of our living planet to help us live healthy, happy lives long into the future.” – Sir David Attenborough

]]> Acute COVID-19 and vaccinations induce cross-reactive antibody responses in breast milk https://codash.org/acute-covid-19-and-vaccinations-induce-cross-reactive-antibody-responses-in-breast-milk/ Wed, 29 Jun 2022 02:31:00 +0000 https://codash.org/acute-covid-19-and-vaccinations-induce-cross-reactive-antibody-responses-in-breast-milk/

As of June 28, 2022, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected over 545 million people and caused over 6.3 million deaths worldwide caused.

To learn: Broad cross-reactive IgA and IgG against human coronaviruses in milk induced by COVID-19 vaccination and infection. Photo credit: evso / Shutterstock.com

Cross-reactive immunity against SARS-CoV-2

SARS-CoV-2 shares sequence homologies with immunodominant epitopes found on the spike protein of several other human coronaviruses (HCoVs). More specifically, the S2 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 shares a greater degree of sequence homology with HCoV strains compared to the S1 subunit.

Individuals suffering from symptomatic COVID-19 often produce a variety of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, the robustness of which correlates directly with the severity of the disease. Previous studies have also indicated that the early humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 is mediated by pre-existing OC43-reactive antibodies produced following infection with other HCoVs.

A major source of pre-existing immunity to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is antibody cross-reactivity due to infection with earlier virus strains. This cross-reactive immunity is similar to that which could be achieved after immunization against a new SARS-CoV-2 strain against previously circulating strains.

SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breast milk

Infants often receive protection from various infectious diseases by exposure to maternal immunoglobulins (Igs), which are present in human breast milk. To this end, previous studies have found that secretory anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA is present in human breast milk both during and after acute infection and that these antibodies are able to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.

In addition, breast milk from mothers receiving topical messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines also appears to contain high levels of IgA and IgG, which are capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, the milk of breastfeeding mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 does not appear to transmit the virus to the nursing infant.

Previous reports have failed to demonstrate the protection that pre-pandemic human breast milk samples conferred against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) present in the spike protein. However, there is still a limited amount of data on whether breast milk from mothers who have recovered from and/or been vaccinated against COVID-19 contains antibodies that are cross-reactive with other HCoVs.

About the study

In a recent vaccinations study examined anti-spike and anti-N-terminal domain (N) IgA and IgG in human breast milk and blood for their activity against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1, as well as four other prevalent HCoVs including 229E , OC43, NL63 and HKU1 after the breastfeeding mothers were vaccinated against or recovered from COVID-19.

Study cohorts and experimental design.  This prospective study consists of two cohorts: (A) The vaccinated cohort included nursing parents (n=30) who were older than 18 years with no history of COVID-19 infection and who were either Pfizer-BioNTech/BNT162b2 or Moderna/mRNA- 1273 mRNA should receive vaccination.  Human milk and fingerstick blood samples were collected prior to vaccination and 18 days after the first and second doses.  (B) The infection cohort included nursing parents who had received an RT-PCR COVID-19 diagnosis within the past 14 days.  Breast milk samples were collected on admission day 0, then on days 3, 10, 19 and 28.  Fingerstick blood samples were collected on days 0 and 28.Study cohorts and experimental design. This prospective study consists of two cohorts: (A) The vaccinated cohort included nursing parents (n=30) who were older than 18 years with no history of COVID-19 infection and who were either Pfizer-BioNTech/BNT162b2 or Moderna/mRNA- 1273 mRNA should receive vaccination. Human milk and fingerstick blood samples were collected prior to vaccination and 18 days after the first and second doses. (B) The infection cohort included nursing parents who had received an RT-PCR COVID-19 diagnosis within the past 14 days. Breast milk samples were collected on admission day 0, then on days 3, 10, 19 and 28. Fingerstick blood samples were collected on days 0 and 28.

A total of 46 breastfeeding mothers previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, as confirmed by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, were enrolled in the current study. Milk samples were collected from these mothers on days zero, three, seven, ten and twenty-eight.

In addition, a total of 30 breastfeeding mothers who received either the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 or Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine were enrolled in the current study. Both milk and finger samples were collected from these participants prior to vaccination and 18 days after receiving both the first and second doses of vaccine.

study results

Compared to pre-vaccination levels, IgA and IgG levels against total SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, S1, S2 and RBD subunits were significant in both breast milk 18 days after receiving the first dose of vaccine higher and blood. In fact, post-vaccination anti-spike IgA and IgG levels in breast milk samples increased consistently by 10- and 100-fold, respectively.

Breast milk and blood SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG antibody response to mRNA vaccination in nursing parents.  (A) IgA and IgG antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 S (SARS2-S), S1, S2, RBD and N of SARS-CoV-2 elicited by COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.  Fingerstick milk and blood samples were collected before vaccination (PRE), 18 days after the first dose (Vac1) and 18 days after the second dose (Vac2).  Antibody concentrations were estimated using the mPLEX-CoV assay (see Methods).  Generalized mixed-effects linear models were used to test for differences between time points (****p<0.0001, ***p<0.001, **p<0.01, *p < 0,05).  (B) Heatmap der Spearman-Korrelationen zwischen IgA- und IgG-Konzentrationen gegen SARS2-S, S1, S2 und RBD in Milch und Blut.  Korrelationskoeffizienten (r) sind farbcodiert, wie in der Abbildung gezeigt, und numerische Werte werden angegeben, wenn der Korrelations-p-Wert kleiner als 0,005 ist.Breast milk and blood SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG antibody response to mRNA vaccination in nursing parents. (A) IgA and IgG antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 S (SARS2-S), S1, S2, RBD and N of SARS-CoV-2 elicited by COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Fingerstick milk and blood samples were collected before vaccination (PRE), 18 days after the first dose (Vac1) and 18 days after the second dose (Vac2). Antibody concentrations were estimated using the mPLEX-CoV assay (see Methods). Generalized mixed-effects linear models were used to test for differences between time points (****p<0.0001, ***p<0.001, **p<0.01, *p<0.05) . (B) Heatmap of Spearman’s correlations between IgA and IgG concentrations against SARS2-S, S1, S2 and RBD in milk and blood. Correlation coefficients (r) are color-coded as shown in the figure, and numerical values ​​are reported when the correlation p-value is less than 0.005.

Both breast milk anti-spike IgA and blood samples remained the same or decreased after receiving the second dose of vaccine. In comparison, IgG levels in both breast milk and blood increased up to 187 days after the second dose of vaccination, above levels observed after receiving the first dose. Anti-S2 IgG levels were not as high as anti-spike, S1, and RBD IgG levels.

Compared to pre-vaccination anti-spike IgA and IgG levels in nursing mothers, infected individuals had significantly higher levels of these antibodies. Both anti-N-IgA and IgG antibodies were also detected in the breast milk of infected mothers at levels that were constant throughout the course of their infection.

Both IgA and IgG levels were highly correlated between blood and breast milk samples from infected mothers. This coupled response appears to be accompanied by a mucosal response observed in breast milk from infected mothers that was not observed in breast milk from vaccinated mothers.

After the first and second doses of vaccine, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in breast milk increased significantly, while IgA levels increased more slowly. After the first and second doses of vaccine, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels increased 163- and 780-fold, respectively, compared to pre-vaccination levels. In comparison, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA increased 5.21- and 2.11-fold at both time points, respectively.

The COVID-19 vaccination also resulted in a 0.43- to 6.04-fold increase in breast milk IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-1, OC43, HKU1, 229E and NL63 HCoVs. However, this effect was not replicated in blood samples, where immunization produced no IgG against 229E and NL63, both of which are antigenically more diverse α-HCoVs, and instead only produced broadly reactive IgG against OC43 and HKU1.

Breast milk and blood samples obtained from infected mothers showed comparable cross-reactive IgA and IgG antibody binding patterns. While IgG levels increased 28.5- and 71.00-fold, respectively, on days 0 and 28 after COVID-19 diagnosis, IgA levels increased 7.15- and 5.56x.

Cross-reactive binding of IgA and IgG to the OC43 and HKU1-β-HCoVs spike proteins was broader and stronger in breast milk and blood samples from COVID-19 positive mothers compared to those generated by vaccination. IgG antibodies produced in human milk samples following SARS-CoV-2 infection showed a broader spectrum of cross-reactivity than human milk IgA and blood IgG, including reactivity against NL63 and 229E.

effects

The current study is the first to show that broad cross-reactive IgG and IgA antibodies against HCoVs in human breast milk were produced by both COVID-19 mRNA immunization and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, the results showed that acute COVID-19 elicited a broader cross-reactive antibody response against HCoV spike proteins in contrast to the two-dose mRNA vaccination schedule.

These results also indicate a strong association between post-infection peripheral blood and vaccination with anti-spike IgG in breast milk; however, no correlation was observed between milk and blood anti-spike IgA.

Magazine reference:

  • Wang J, Young BE, Li D, & Seppo A (2022). Broad cross-reactive IgA and IgG against human coronaviruses in milk induced by COVID-19 vaccination and infection. vaccinations. doi:10.3390/Vaccines10060980
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Aquaman speaks out at the UN conference on the world’s oceans https://codash.org/aquaman-speaks-out-at-the-un-conference-on-the-worlds-oceans/ Tue, 28 Jun 2022 08:03:37 +0000 https://codash.org/aquaman-speaks-out-at-the-un-conference-on-the-worlds-oceans/

Hollywood actor Jason Momoa is taking his role as Aquaman, protector of the deep oceans, off screen. While attending a UN conference in Portugal, Momoa was named the UN Environment Programme’s new advocate for underwater life – an honored position to recognize his work protecting marine life.

Photo credit: UNEP.

Involved by governments, civil society and business, The UN Ocean Conference seeks to make progress on solutions that ensure better management and conservation of the ocean and its resources. The conference emphasizes the need for scientific knowledge to build ocean resilience and will end with a negotiated political declaration.

The Aquaman actor, a native Hawaiian of Polynesian descent, said he was impressed by his appointment and expressed his hope to protect and preserve the ocean “for our generation and generations to come.” It’s not just about his work on Aquaman—Momoa has contributed to other conservation efforts in the past, such as Sustainable Coastlines Hawaii and rePurpose Global, a plastic elimination movement.

“The sea needs us. Without healthy ocean life, our planet as we know it would not exist,” Momoa said. “We must seek to right the wrongs we have done to our children and grandchildren, turn the tide of our irresponsible stewardship, and create a moment for a future where humanity can once again live in harmony with nature.”

Working to protect the oceans

Momoa highlighted how growing up in one of the world’s most beautiful archipelagos made him appreciate the sea and nature. Describing the ocean as “an ancient teacher, guide and muse,” he said that while acting has been his career, ocean conservation has been his passion since he was young.

While most of us know him for his role in Aquaman, Momoa actually has an extensive background in protecting the oceans off-screen. He studied marine biology in Iowa and then transferred to Colorado State University, where he studied wildlife biology. He is an avid nature lover and frequently posts photos of himself and his family in nature.

Youth activists from different countries cheered when Momoa arrived by boat at a beach in Lisbon, where he received a “nature staff” representing his new designation. He was received by UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres and UN Special Envoy for the Ocean Peter Thomson, who spoke to Mamoa and the beach activists.

“Jason has a strong track record of advocating for ocean issues, from reducing single-use plastic pollution to protecting coral reefs,” said UNEP Executive Director Inger Andersen. “With an audience of engaged fans, we believe Jason can bring ocean reflections to the hearts and minds of citizens and business leaders.”

The ocean covers 70% of the earth’s surface, produces about half of the world’s oxygen and absorbs 25% of all greenhouse gas emissions. However, climate change is increasing temperatures and causing sea levels to rise. This adds up to the growing problem of plastic waste eleven million tons of plastic end up in the ocean every year.

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JEA and JaxPort plan to increase power lines to accommodate larger cargo ships https://codash.org/jea-and-jaxport-plan-to-increase-power-lines-to-accommodate-larger-cargo-ships/ Mon, 27 Jun 2022 17:45:02 +0000 https://codash.org/jea-and-jaxport-plan-to-increase-power-lines-to-accommodate-larger-cargo-ships/

JaxPort and JEA have agreed on a plan to hoist power lines spanning the St. Johns River by 2026 so the high-voltage cables don’t present an air obstacle to giant cargo ships coming to Jacksonville.

JaxPort and JEA officials have had awkward conversations over the power lines for a number of years. Earlier this year, a JEA board member claimed that “boring” JEA admins had no interest in raising them.

JEA has stated that it is fulfilling all of its commitments by first completing a feasibility study on the project.

The JaxPort board of directors on Monday unanimously approved a letter of intent that would see the Port Authority responsible for securing the estimated $42 million needed to install new towers that will hold the elevated transmission lines.